If an entry does not have a byline, begin the reference with the entry title and publication date. In Encyclopedia of chemical technology 4th ed. Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook MMY Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative example provided below. Also note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review.
It is not usually necessary to add lines to avoid widowed or orphaned headings meaning headings at the bottom of a page; though ask your professor to be sure if you are concerned about typesetting, such as with a dissertation.
If your paper requires a section not addressed in this post or in the Publication Manual, then we recommend you use double spacing unless you have been instructed otherwise. For example, if your dissertation or thesis requires a table of contents including lists of tables and figuresthen we recommend that you generate it using an automatic table of contents function such as the one in Microsoft Word.
The default spacing of the table of contents function is acceptable, as is changing the spacing of the table of contents to double if desired. Posted by Chelsea Lee at Do I have to present the quotation in both the original language and in translation, or do I present only the original or only a translation?
How do I cite these quotes? Dear reader, Before we dig into the foreign-language aspects of this question, read the blog post on how to discuss research participant data in generalincluding how to present participant quotations that do not require translation and how to assign pseudonyms to participants.
That post also explains the rationale for why research participant quotations do not have typical APA Style citations and reference list entries. Now, presenting a research participant quotation that was originally in a foreign language is largely the same as presenting a quotation that does not require translation.
You have the option of presenting just a translation of the quotation or of presenting both the original and the translation.
You might choose to present both languages if you want to draw attention to how something was said in the foreign language e. Otherwise, presenting just the translation is fine. We do not recommend presenting the original without a translation, as your readers might not understand it!
Place quotations of less than 40 words in quotation marks, and place quotations of 40 words or more in a block quotation. After the foreign-language quotation, place an English translation of the quotation in square brackets.
However, there is no citation per se, for two reasons: Here are two examples: Short quotation in translation: Long quotation in translation: Now I understand my purpose better. I am more focused and motivated. At the same time, I understand that my choice is not for everyone.
Present quotations of fewer than 40 words in quotation marks and quotations of 40 words or more in a block quotation, and attribute the quotation to a pseudonym. Then, indicate that the quotation is a translation. This can be accomplished in a number of ways.
If your paper contains only a few translated participant quotations, note the translation in square brackets after each quotation. If your paper contains many translated participant quotations, state only once that you have translated all such quotations. You can explain this in the regular text or via a footnote.
You can use any wording you like to indicate that you have done the translation yourself. One translation noted in square brackets: All translations explained at once in the narrative: In this paper, I have translated all quotations from French into English.
If your quotation is from a published source rather than a research participant, please see our posts on that topic:Why students need sample dissertations and thesis examples? There are certain periods in your education when you desperately need to write a thesis paper, dissertation, research proposal, or any other high profile paper.
When to Add Extra Lines.
In general, it is not necessary to add extra blank lines to an APA Style paper (an exception is around displayed equations, where you can add one or two blank lines before and/or after the equation to make it more visible to the reader).
Top 9 Agriculture Research Paper Topics. Agriculture, for many people, is not the most interesting of topics. Turning a topic that revolves around farming, plants, growth, agricultural technology and other agricultural concerns may seem nearly impossible to .
Top 9 Agriculture Research Paper Topics. Agriculture, for many people, is not the most interesting of topics.
Turning a topic that revolves around farming, plants, growth, agricultural technology and other agricultural concerns may seem nearly impossible to some. How to Write a Research Paper. When studying at higher levels of school and throughout college, you will likely be asked to prepare research papers.
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