The paper begins with a brief description of general diffusion theory that includes mention of the four most commonly discussed diffusion theories. Following the discussion of general diffusion theory, the author describes how general diffusion theories have been used to form diffusion theories specific to the field of instructional technology.
Diffusion of innovations is a theory originally designed to explain how change agents influence social processes. It has become a theory used to address how a technology or technological artifact becomes adopted, what forces affect the adoption process, and how proponents of a given technology or artifact may better influence the adoption process.
The theory addresses how new ideas and technologies are communicated, evaluated, adopted, and reevaluated. Foundations of Diffusion Theory Diffusion of innovations is important to the study of communication because of its focus on process and what factors influence the process of communication.
Specifically, diffusion is conceptualized as the process by which an innovation is communicated through channels over time among the members of a particular audience.
Innovations are ideas, practices, or objects perceived as new by members of that particular audience.
Thus, the theory addresses how knowledge is strategically managed to create specific effects on particular audiences. While Technology adoption and diffusion essay using the terms of the theory as they are known today, Gabriel de Tarde a French sociologist and legal scholar of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has been credited with the initial conceptualization of diffusion of innovations.
Tarde observed many of the key factors of the theory, including the influence of public-opinion leaders as change agents upon social systems, the role of socioeconomic status as a factor affecting interpersonal diffusion, and the basic S-shaped model of innovation adoption over time.
Anthropologists recognized the significance of this model and began to use it in attempts to explain processes of social change. The Iowa hybrid seed corn study conducted by Bryce Ryan and Neal Grosshowever, is considered to be the event that clarified the practicality of diffusion of innovations for explaining the process of large-scale social influence.
The initial Ryan and Gross study was designed to explain why hybrid seed corn was readily adopted by some farmers while many others were much slower to adopt the product.
The foundation of diffusion of innovations as it is presently known is a by-product of this study, and the theory retains the basic components of that foundation in modern, diverse applications.
Preindustrial society in the United States was very slow to change. As people moved to cities from rural America and as diverse international populations immigrated to the United Statespockets of innovative ideas began to emerge.
Modern industrial society provided technological advantages in production that aided in the establishment of an infrastructure for further technological development.
Technological advancements became very evident in agriculture, particularly in the United States, during the period preceding World War II. Technological growth coupled with the concerns of an economic depression encouraged the development of a hybrid of corn that was particularly resistant to the harsh agricultural climate of the s.
While resistant to drought and disease, however, the hybrid corn did have a drawback; it could not reproduce.
Therefore, farmers would have to buy new seed for each planting season. Why, then, would farmers invest in what many perceived to be such a risky venture when the stakes were already so high during the Great Depression?
Why and how the innovative seed was adopted was the concern of agricultural researchers who were supported by the government and backed by land grants. Did farmers respond to the pitches of company salespeople, the brochures produced by early cooperative extension agents, information provided in print and radio broadcasts, or their neighbors?
As it turns out, farmers responded to all of these channels. Although initial information tended to be provided by individual seed company salespeople, most influence tended to come from within the farming community.
In other words, in the early stages of hybrid seed corn innovation adoption, many attempts to influence the adoption process affected only a few farmers. As a few farmers became successful and endorsed the use of the hybrid seed corn, they became opinion leaders who influenced even larger numbers of their neighbors in the adoption process diffusion.
Mass communicated messages proved effective in influencing the early stages of adoption, but interpersonally communicated messages proved more effective during the widest range of diffusion.
Thus, what was learned from the Ryan and Gross study is that the mass media helped to draw attention to the innovation, create a deeper awareness of the potential of the seed corn, and define the product as important to particular opinion leaders who would act as change agents for their communities.IS Innovation Adoption and Diffusion In , when the technology acceptance model (TAM, Davis ) was developed computers were unfamiliar to many organizations.
At that time, technologies were designed to automate administrative and transactional work typically by utilizing large enterprise systems. related to information diffusion and farmer’s non-economic characteristics such as age and education.
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Based on our information, there. words - 4 pages COM Communications and the Media Applying Diffusions of Innovations Theory This essay be an examination and will express a form of innovation, such as a new or different idea, practices, or product using Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory.
An innovation, merely expressed, is “an idea perceived as new by the. Economic Papers are written by the Staff of the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial The Diffusion/Adoption of Innovation in the Internal Market I Supply models and Technology characteristics: Supply-side determinants of.
The economic theory of technology diffusion and innovation [e.g., Gold, and Rosegger ] has led to the development of the recognition of a number of factors relating to the ultimate adoption of.