Europeanization[ edit ] From onward, Europeanization and colonialism spread gradually over much of the world and controlled different regions during this five centuries long period, colonizing or subjecting the majority of the globe.
Sources That Japan changed more in the four and a half decades to since the arrival of Commodore Perry in Shimoda in than in the three centuries of Tokugawa control is beyond question. Folklorist Kunio Yanagida sees this change as "virtually revolutionary.
The Tokugawa regime attempted to hermetically seal Japan to the outside world to prevent change, the Meiji leaders strove to execute change.
The pressure and motivation for this change was the Western threat to Japan's sovereignty itself and the need to reverse the unequal treaties imposed on Japan in the 's.
Thus, under the slogans of fukoku kyohei Enrich the country, strengthen the military and bunmeikaika Civilization and Enlightenmentthe Meiji leadership attempted to industrialize the nation and strengthen the army to protect national independence.
Later the movement for civilization and enlightenment, adopted by government and intelligentsia, hoped to impress on the West that Japan was now an equal partner in world affairs and so could set its own tariffs and administer its own laws to Japanese and foreigners alike. The new Meiji government, officially and privately sponsored missions abroad such as the Iwakura Mission of when Iwakura Tomomi, Ito Hirobumi and Kido Koin traveled to the USA and Europe with some 40 other Japanese government officials and around 60 students.
The Emperor Meiji and Empress Shoken Translations of western books and the presence in Japan of foreign teachers were all agents for change in the second half of the nineteenth century. Some 3, foreign teachers and technicians were invited to Japan between among them David Murray of Rutgers, who helped establish the new elementary school system and Ludwig Riesswho established a school of historical studies at Tokyo University.
We survey the "modernization" and change that took place in Japanese society up to by looking at various aspects of that society.
Clothing, food and housing i-shoku-ju The government and through it, the army, were the first to make changes to clothing in Japanese society. A regulation of ordered the substitution of Western dress for the ceremonial robes of court nobles, and even the Emperor had appeared in Western dress in The army had begun to wear Western uniforms since the bakumatsu period.
However basic clothing did not change significantly for most Japanese during the second half of the nineteenth century due to high costs and suitability to other aspects of Japanese living, for example, sitting on the floor and the custom of removing shoes before entering a house made the high-button styles of this period rather impractical.
More noticeable were the changes in hairstyles with the short cut replacing the topknot, so that by it was difficult to find a man in the cities with a traditional hair style. For women, blackened teeth and shaved eyebrows began to disappear quickly from the cities and more slowly in the countryside.
After men cut their hair, they began to wear Western style hats and carry umbrellas and pocket watches.
Imported wool began to be used for coats and shawls but these were generally worn over the kimono and were expensive and therefore limited to the prosperous few. Indeed, Western clothing often seems to have been used as an accessory.
It appears officials would usually don traditional clothing in the home after wearing Western attire to work. The major changes that occurred in Japanese housing in the period seem to have be "a diffusion of innovations from the Tokugawa period" [Hanley, ] including the adoption of shoji paper-on-wooden-frame room dividersengawa the balcony and fusuma sliding wall-style panels from samurai houses by the growing number of salaried workers and farmers where they could afford to do so.
Thus wood replaced dirt and tatami replaced wood. These were Japanese innovations rather than "modern", Western ones. However, kerosene and oil lamps tended to replace rapeseed lamps in the Meiji Period and this added to the increased use of shoji and sometimes glass and new, hard, ceramic hibachi led to the family not having to be centered around the stove as the only source of heat and light.
A corollary of increased light was that Japanese houses began to become cleaner and more sanitary. It was in Tokyo and the larger cities that new, Western style concrete, stone and brick buildings and bridges were built.
Gas lighting came to the Ginza in and electricity in However, it was not until well into the twentieth century that Tokyo began to resemble London, Paris or New York rather than old wooden Edo.
As for eating habits, the Meiji period saw a wider diffusion of changes begun in Tokugawa times with increases in the consumption of polished rice, teafruit, sugar and soy sauce. Dining out also became more widespread. With the development of communications and increased social mobility, local customs such as eating seafood became national ones over time.
Meat eating though encouraged by such "modernizers" as Fukuzawa Yukichi and spread through conscription along with beer did not become widespread in Japan until after World War II. Beer was first brewed in Japan in the s initially by foreigners in Yokohamaan operation that was later sold to Japanese entrepreneurs and was to become Kirin Beer.
In Sapporoin Hokkaido, beer was produced in by a company that was to become the modern day Sapporo Beer. The first beer hall was opened by Sapporo Beer in Ginza in Tokyo in Conservative commentators of the time reveal the influx of new western fashions and the greater spread of samurai customs to the general populace: Everyone has forgotten the righteous way.In this lesson, we explore the opening of Japan to Western trade by Commodore Matthew Perry in the midth century.
We'll then look at the ensuing westernization of the country in the Meiji period. The End of Westernization Mahbubani counters this argument in his other book, The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East.
This time, he argues that Western influence is now "unraveling", with Eastern powers such as China arising.
Essay on Westernization in China and Japan - In the middle of the 19th century, despite a few similarities between the initial responses of China and Japan to the West, they later diverged; which ultimately affected and influenced the modernizing development of both countries.
Essay about Japan Background Information Japan, otherwise known as, The Land of Rising Sun, is located in Eastern Asia and is slightly smaller than California.
With a population of ,, the majority of the population are Japanese.
Japan vs China Essay. Trade between China and Japan is worth about $bn (£bn). That alone, stands as a significant portion of trade, investment, and revenue. Short-term revenue, for example would be a one-time exchange of trade whereas long-term revenue would be long-term trade obligations between two business or parties. Westernization is often regarded as a part of the ongoing process of globalization. This theory proposes that Western thought has led to globalisation, and that globalisation propagates Western culture, leading to a cycle of Westernization. Japan (日本, Nippon) is a country in Asia. It has many islands. Four of them are big, and the biggest is the 7th largest island in the world. This island is called Honshu. The islands are near the East Asian coast, in the western part of the Pacific Ocean.
Although the s saw a reaction against the onslaught of Western influence, naturalists argued in favor of the best that was Japanese, but they did so in a thoroughly Western frame of reference and could identify little of exclusive value aside from the physical beauties of Japan, especially Mt.
Fuji. Japan's Westernization In four pages this paper considers the Meiji Era of Japan and how until Westernization was embraced by Japan.