The Industrial Revolution Economic effects Undergirding the development of modern Europe between the s and was an unprecedented economic transformation that embraced the first stages of the great Industrial Revolution and a still more general expansion of commercial activity. Articulate Europeans were initially more impressed by the screaming political news generated by the French Revolution and ensuing Napoleonic Warsbut in retrospect the economic upheaval, which related in any event to political and diplomatic trends, has proved more fundamental. Between andthe populations of major countries increased between 50 and percent, chiefly as a result of the use of new food crops such as the potato and a temporary decline in epidemic disease.
He had already learned the elements of Latin from his mother by the time he entered the Stuttgart grammar schoolwhere he remained for his education until he was As a schoolboy he made a collection of extracts, alphabetically arranged, comprising annotations on classical authors, passages from newspapers, and treatises on morals and mathematics from the standard works of the period.
Here he studied philosophy and classics for two years and graduated in Though he then took the theological course, he was impatient with the orthodoxy of his teachers; and the certificate given to him when he left in states that, whereas he had devoted himself vigorously to philosophy, his industry in theology was intermittent.
He was also said to be poor in oral exposition, a deficiency that was to dog him throughout his life. His chief friends during that period were a pantheistic poet, J.
Together they read the Greek tragedians and celebrated the glories of the French Revolution. On leaving college, Hegel did not enter the ministry; instead, wishing to have leisure for the study of philosophy and Greek literaturehe became a private tutor.
He also studied the critical philosopher Immanuel Kant and was stimulated by his essay on religion to write certain papers that became noteworthy only when, more than a century later, they were published as a part of Hegels theologische Jugendschriften ; Early Theological Writings.
Hegel accepted this teaching; but, being more of a historian than Kant was, he put it to the test of history by writing two essays. The first of these was a life of Jesus in which Hegel attempted to reinterpret the Gospel on Kantian lines.
The second essay was an answer to the question of how Christianity had ever become the authoritarian religion that it was, if in fact the teaching of Jesus was not authoritarian but rationalistic. His hopes of more companionship, however, were unfulfilled: Hegel began to suffer from melancholia and, to cure himself, worked harder than ever, especially at Greek philosophy and modern history and politics.
He read and made clippings from English newspapers, wrote about the internal affairs of his native Wurtemberg, and studied economics. Emancipation from Kantianism It is impossible to exaggerate the importance that this problem had for Hegel.
It is true that his early theological writings contain hard sayings about Christianity and the churches; but the object of his attack was orthodoxy, not theology itself.
Above all, he was inspired by a doctrine of the Holy Spirit. The spirit of humanity, its reasonis the candle of the Lord, he held, and therefore cannot be subject to the limitations that Kant had imposed upon it.
His outlook had also become that of a historian—which again distinguishes him from Kant, who was much more influenced by the concepts of physical science. Its style is often difficult and the connection of thought not always plain, but it is written with passion, insight, and conviction.
He begins by sketching the essence of Judaism, which he paints in the darkest colours.
The Jews were slaves to the Mosaic Law, leading a life unlovely in comparison with that of the ancient Greeks and content with the material satisfaction of a land flowing with milk and honey.
Jesus taught something entirely different. Humans are not to be the slaves of objective commands: A community of such believers is the Kingdom of God. This is the kingdom that Jesus came to teach. It is founded on a belief in the unity of the divine and the human.
The life that flows in them both is one; and it is only because humans are spirit that they can grasp and comprehend the Spirit of God. Hegel works out this conception in an exegesis of passages in the Gospel According to John.
The kingdom, however, can never be realized in this world: Kant had argued that humans can have knowledge only of a finite world of appearances and that, whenever their reason attempts to go beyond this sphere and grapple with the infinite or with ultimate reality, it becomes entangled in insoluble contradictions.
Hegel, however, found in love, conceived as a union of opposites, a prefigurement of spirit as the unity in which contradictions, such as infinite and finite, are embraced and synthesized.
His choice of the word Geist to express this his leading conception was deliberate: But there is room for another philosophy, based on the concept of spirit, that will distill into conceptual form the insights of religion.
This was the philosophy that Hegel now felt himself ready to expound.
Career as lecturer at Jena Fortunately, his circumstances changed at this moment, and he was at last able to embark on the academic career that had long been his ambition. In January he arrived in Jenawhere Schelling had been a professor since Jena, which had harboured the fantastic mysticism of the Schlegel brothers Friedrich and August and their colleagues, as well as the Kantianism and ethical idealism of Fichte, had already seen its golden age, for these great scholars had all left.
It was suggested that Hegel had been summoned as a new champion to aid his friend.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. The Industrial Revolution Economic effects. Undergirding the development of modern Europe between the s and was an unprecedented economic transformation that embraced the first stages of the great Industrial Revolution and a still more general expansion of commercial activity.
The Alamo's Historic Past. The Age of Santa Anna. More of the Alamo.
Main Mexico Page. Americas On The Eve Of Invasion. Earliest Mexican Civilizations. Cortez. Rarely is someone as consistent in their philosophy as Ayn Rand.
The New Left is a collection of Objectivist essays geared towards the developing minds of college students and young adults to counteract the pervasive exposure to leftist demagoguery from professors and load mouth students.
But by the time that Romanticism arose in Britain, the industrial revolution and changes in the economy had altered the country. Many people had moved into cities for the purpose of work, which led cities to become the center of the country’s economic and social life.
During the Industrial Revolution, an intellectual and artistic hostile towards the new industrial development, which was known as the Romantic Movement, emerged. The movement stressed the importance of “nature” in art and language—in contrast to monstrous machines and factories.