Students will be able to identify and discuss their own career aspirations or relevant skills and knowledge and how they impact on others. Students will be able to identify and demonstrate the perspectives or problem solving techniques of different disciplines.
In the early s, Roger Penrose introduced new mathematical techniques to solve Einstein's equations where exact answers were unavailable because of asymmetry. In the s, Robert MacArthur and his colleagues invented simple holistic ecological models. His program in population ecology was aimed at bringing community ecology, e.
In the s, Ilya Prigogine theorized that the first cells were thermodynamic 'dissipative structures,' that is, they organized themselves, and with the influx of energy in the form of food or sunlightbecame more instead of less organized. InBenjamin D. Hall and Sol Spiegelman, working with phage, published proof that messenger RNA carries a specific message, confirming Volkin's and Astrachan's results Hall and Spiegelman InMarshall Warren Nirenberg and J.
Heinrich Matthaei deciphered the first code group, a sequence of nucleotides that specified the amino acid phenylalanine. This they accomplished by adding artificial RNA, in this case, polytidylic acid, to a cell-free system in which the ribosomes would bind with the tRNA molecule complementary to the codon carrying the specific amino acid called for by the one-word message.
Their announcement set off a race to decipher the rest of the code by Brenner, Ochoa, Crick, and others Nirenberg and Matthaei InPeter Denis Mitchell, developing Keilin's idea of a respiratory chain in the context of oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation, postulated energy coupling by an ion gradient, which is known as the chemiosmotic hypothesis.
Mitchell proposed that electron transport and phosphorylation are not chemically linked, but rather coupled only by a transmembrane current of protons Mitchell InWigner proposed that self-replication is probable In terms of quantum mechanics, assuming that living states exist which is to say that the formation of a single protein molecule by random means is infinitely improbable Wigner InDavid Hubel and Torsten Wiesel published results which showed that an anesthetized cat's visual cortex showed activity even though its brain waves showed it more asleep than awake.
Later, they determined that, in the physiology of vision, neurons respond first to dark edges, rather than a spot of light. InRoger W. Sperry published results of his studies of lateralization in animal brains in which disconnected cerebral hemispheres could be taught in such a way that one hemisphere learned one response while the other hemisphere learned a different response.
InRichard C. Lewontin was the first to explicitly apply game theory to evolutionary biology, pitting species against nature and seeking survival strategies. InHolland circulated a technical report entitled "A Logical Theory of Adaptive Systems Informally Described," In which he propounded a general theory of adaption, i.
InGell-Mann and, independently, Yuval Ne'eman invented a three-dimensional symmetrical particle physics equivalent of the periodic table for 'baryons' and a similar one for mesons--hadrons consist of baryons and mesons--according to a field theory model Gell-Mann called the 'Eightfold way.
The reality of the scheme for mesons was predicated on the existence of a new particle, 'omega-minus or -negative ,' which was confirmed three years later.
InJeffrey Goldstone created a theorem in which he "generalized Nambu's work, using as his example a renormalizable theory of a complex spin-zero quantum field" Brown et al.
This massless particle of zero spin came to be known as the Nambu-Goldstone boson. InVitalii Lazarevich Ginzburg suggested that the "enormous energy required to power a [radio] source like Cynus A might be provided by the gravitational contraction of the central part of the galaxy concerned" Gribbin Novikov, and others who hooked up the discovery of quasars with black-holes lying at the heart of distant, i.
Ohm reported ineliminatable microwave static with a temperature of about 3 degrees K. Jacob concluded that the inhibition of an enzyme by the end product of its pathway required a second active site on the molecule; they named the structural movement between these sites an 'allosteric transition' Monod et al.
InHans Ris noticed the similarity in appearance of the DNA in chloroplasts to that of cyanobacteria. InWerner Arber predicted the existence of 'restriction endonuclease' enzymes, which are bacterial enzymes capable of cleaving viral DNA at points where specific nucleotide sequences occur.
Between andEdelman, Baruj Benacerraf, Joseph Gally, and colleagues confirmed that antibodies of different specificities had different primary structures, i.
They proposed, and Christian Anfinsen, Edgar Haber, and colleagues confirmed, that antibodies also had different three-dimensional structures, i. That antibodies could be denatured and then be allowed to reform in the absence of antigen was the final disproof of the template hypothesis E.
Extending these proposals, Smithies pointed out that "for the combination of H [for heavy] and L [for light] chains to hold implications for antibody diversity InJohn B.
Gurdon demonstrated totipotency, that is, that a fully differentiated cell still contains the genetic information to direct development of the cells in the entire animal. He accomplished this by removing the nuclei from fertilized frogs' egg and replacing them with a cell from a single tadpole's intestine.
The frogs grown in this way had identical genetic constitutions, that is, they were clones. Cohen isolated epidermal growth factor. InLederman, Melvin Schwartz, and Jack Steinberger identified the muon neutrino, "produced primarily as a result of the decay of the pion" Danby et al.
InGold, in "The Arrow of Time," said that the Universe's expansion is the only real marker for the privileged direction of time Gold Inan Aerobee rocket, flown by a group led by Riccardo Giacconi, found the first source of X-rays, Scorpius X-1, outside the Solar System and, also, the more general X-ray background.
X-rays, like gamma rays and infrared radiation rarely penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. InPaul Baran described 'packet switching,' the breaking down of data into labelled packets, and how this would be crucial for the realization of a computer network.
InThomas S.Write equations to represent positive and negative ion formation for the following pairs of elements. Then write a Represent the following reaction using Lewis structures: I + 12 SOLUTION: Predict the shape of each of the following polyatomic ions by first drawing a Lewis structure, then applying the VSEPR theory: a) NH2.
Write the chemical equations for these combustion reactions using Lewis structures instead of chemical formulas. Many planets in our solar system contain organic chemicals including methane (CH 4) and traces of ethylene (C 2 H 4), ethane (C 2 H 6), propyne (H 3 CCCH), and diacetylene (HCCCCH).
Nov 12, · Shows how to draw Lewis Dot Structures for ionic compounds. You can see a listing of all my videos at my website, regardbouddhiste.com Write the chemical equations for these combustion reactions using Lewis structures instead of chemical formulas. Many planets in our solar system contain organic chemicals including methane (CH 4) and traces of ethylene (C 2 H 4), ethane (C 2 H 6), propyne (H 3 CCCH), and diacetylene (HCCCCH).
Sometimes I get interesting questions that don’t quite fit into any of the existing topics already discussed within the blog and my obsessive/compulsive nature tells me that getting this questions in a random part/page/post of the blog doesn’t look quite neat either.
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions.