The Beowulf poet reveals the theme of loyal dependency Essay Although Beowulf Is under no obligation to do so, he demonstrates his loyalty to Warthogs by willingly fighting to the death in order to defend the Danes against the evil monster Grenade. Beowulf is a great Anglo-Saxon warrior. He has super human abilities that set him apart from other men.
With a missionary commitment to both Jews and Gentiles non-JewsChristianity rapidly spread into the greater Roman empire and beyond. Here, Christianity came into contact with the dominant Pagan religions.
By the 2nd centurymany Christians were converts from Paganism. These conflicts are recorded in the works of the early Christian writers such as Justin Martyr as well as hostile reports by writers including Tacitus and Suetonius. Persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire[ edit ] Christianity was persecuted by Roman imperial authorities early on in its history within the greater empire.
Persecution under Nero, 64—68 AD[ edit ] Main article: Great Fire of Rome The first documented case of imperially-supervised persecution of the Christians in the Roman Empire begins with Nero 37— In 64 AD, a great fire broke out in Romedestroying portions of the city and economically devastating the Roman population.
Annals XV, see Tacitus on Jesus. Suetonius, later to the period, does not mention any persecution after the fire, but in a previous paragraph unrelated to the fire, mentions punishments inflicted on Christians, defined as men following a new and malefic superstition.
Suetonius however does not specify the reasons for the punishment, he just listed the fact together with other abuses put down by Nero. The Persecution in Lyon was preceded by mob violence, including assaults, robberies and stonings Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.
The first documentable Empire-wide persecution took place under Maximinus Thraxthough only the clergy were sought out. It was not until Decius during the mid-century that a persecution of Christian laity across the Empire took place.
Christian sources aver that a decree was issued requiring public sacrifice, a formality equivalent to a testimonial of allegiance to the Emperor and the established order.
Decius authorized roving commissions visiting the cities and villages to supervise the execution of the sacrifices and to deliver written certificates to all citizens who performed them.
Christians were often given opportunities to avoid further punishment by publicly offering sacrifices or burning incense to Roman gods. Christians fled to safe havens in the countryside and some purchased their certificates, called libelli.
Several councils held at Carthage debated the extent to which the community should accept these lapsed Christians. Some early Christians sought out and welcomed martyrdom. Roman authorities tried hard to avoid Christians because they "goaded, chided, belittled and insulted the crowds until they demanded their death.
The proconsul obliged some of them and then sent the rest away, saying that if they wanted to kill themselves there was plenty of rope available or cliffs they could jump off.
Both Polycarp and Cyprianbishops in Smyrna and Carthage respectively, attempted to avoid martyrdom. The Diocletianic Persecution[ edit ] Main article: The persecutions culminated with Diocletian and Galerius at the end of the third and beginning of the 4th century.
The Great Persecution is considered the largest. Beginning with a series of four edicts banning Christian practices and ordering the imprisonment of Christian clergy, the persecution intensified until all Christians in the empire were commanded to sacrifice to the gods or face immediate execution.
This persecution lasted until Constantine Ialong with Liciniuslegalized Christianity in It was not until Theodosius I in the later 4th century that Christianity would become the State church of the Roman Empire.
Between these two events Julian II temporarily restored the traditional Roman religion and established broad religious tolerance renewing Pagan and Christian hostilities.Anglo-Saxon monasteries.
In AD the Pope in Rome decided it was time the Anglo-Saxons in Britain heard about Christianity. He sent a monk called Augustine to persuade the king to become a Christian.
Anglo-Saxon settlers, including the heroic code Words: — Pages: 3 Anglo-Saxon Literature of a new religion influenced Anglo-Saxon culture and literature to become predominantly Christian and abandon paganism.
The Clash of Paganism Versus Christianity in Beowulf Essay. No Works Cited Length: Furthermore Beowulf viewed as explicitly Christian or pagan literature, the text represents some of both religions throughout this poem.
Pagan and Christian fusing is a strong element of the early Anglo-Saxon poem. Paganism highly regards the concepts.
Exploring Christianity and Paganism in the Anglo-Saxon Society; Thus, through the mix of pagan and Christian values, the allusions, and the Christ-like symbolism, Beowulf portrays a Christian-dominated Anglo-Saxon society and a biased narrator. While heroes in history have come and gone, Beowulf may rightly take his place among the greatest.
Although Christianity dominates the religious history of the Anglo-Saxons, life in the 5th/6th centuries was dominated by 'pagan' religious beliefs with a Scando-Germanic heritage. Early Anglo-Saxon society attached great significance to the horse; a horse may have been an acquaintance of the god Wodan, and/or they may have been (according to Tacitus) confidants of the gods.
The basis of Anglo-Saxon paganism narrows down to two main ideals: But there are unquestionable Christian values in the text as well. Within this context there is a continuous theme of good versus evil. Beowulf is a Christian hero who is endowed with superhuman strengths representative of paganism.