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Design[ edit ] The integral members of a truss bridge  The nature of a truss allows the analysis of the structure using a few assumptions and the application of Newton's laws of motion according to the branch of physics known as statics.
For purposes of analysis, trusses are assumed to be pin jointed where the straight components meet. This assumption means that members of the truss chords, verticals and diagonals will act only in tension or compression.
A more complex analysis is required where rigid joints impose significant bending loads upon the elements, as in a Vierendeel truss. In the bridge illustrated in the infobox at the top, vertical members are in tension, lower horizontal members in tension, shearand bending, outer diagonal and top members are in compression, while the inner diagonals are in tension.
The central vertical member stabilizes the upper compression member, preventing it from buckling. If the top member is sufficiently stiff then this vertical element may be eliminated.
If the lower chord a horizontal member of a truss is sufficiently resistant to bending and shear, the outer vertical elements may be eliminated, but with additional strength added to other members in compensation.
The ability to distribute the forces in various ways has led to a large variety of truss bridge types. Some types may be more advantageous when wood is employed for compression elements while other types may be easier to erect in particular site conditions, or when the balance between labor, machinery and material costs have certain favorable proportions.
The inclusion of the elements shown is largely an engineering decision based upon economics, being a balance between the costs of raw materials, off-site fabrication, component transportation, on-site erection, the availability of machinery and the cost of labor.
In other cases the appearance of the structure may take on greater importance and so influence the design decisions beyond mere matters of economics. Modern materials such as prestressed concrete and fabrication methods, such as automated weldingand the changing price of steel relative to that of labor have significantly influenced the design of modern bridges.
Model bridges[ edit ] A pure truss can be represented as a pin-jointed structure, one where the only forces on the truss members are tension or compression, not bending. This is used in the teaching of statics, by the building of model bridges from spaghetti.
Spaghetti is brittle and although it can carry a modest tension force, it breaks easily if bent. A model spaghetti bridge thus demonstrates the use of a truss structure to produce a usefully strong complete structure from individually weak elements.
History in the United States[ edit ] Warren-type through-truss of the former Seaboard Air Line Railwaylocated near the village of Willow, Florida ; abandoned since the mids Because wood was in abundance, early truss bridges would typically use carefully fitted timbers for members taking compression and iron rods for tension membersusually constructed as a covered bridge to protect the structure.
In a simple form of truss, Town's lattice trusswas patented, and had the advantage of requiring neither high labor skills nor much metal. Few iron truss bridges were built in the United States before Truss bridges became a common type of bridge built from the s through the s.
Examples of these bridges still remain across the US, but their numbers are dropping rapidly, as they are demolished and replaced with new structures.
As metal slowly started to replace timber, wrought iron bridges in the US started being built on a large scale in the s. Bowstring truss bridges were a common truss design during this time, with their arched top chords.Spring Training Cactus League Baseball in the Valley of the Sun Wiles West is a business offering guide services and all inclusive travel packages.
A truss bridge is a bridge whose load-bearing superstructure is composed of a truss, a structure of connected elements usually forming triangular regardbouddhiste.com connected elements (typically straight) may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic regardbouddhiste.com bridges are one of the oldest types of modern bridges.
The basic types of truss bridges shown in this. Vincent on Camelback is a Valley Icon.
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