Order your essay, dissertation, article, term paper, coursework and other assignments at BuyEssay.
An outline of the above mentioned two theories will be given and how it informs knowledge of human development. I Attachment theory essay conclusion go on to critically discuss the links to social work practice. In conclusion, I will demonstrate application of attachment theory to social work practice.
Attachment theory Bowlby Howe et al asserts that attachment is viewed as a biological response designed to get children into close, protective relationships.
Bowlby outlined four phases of the development of attachment as an integrated system of behaviours in infants: Due to this and newly acquired motor skills, the infant now readily seeks the proximity to the caregiver.
Bowlby, cited in Beckett However, there are three types of insecure attachment which are listed by Wilson et al as insecure avoidant attachment group A, insecure ambivalent attachment group C and insecure disorganised or disoriented attachment Attachment theory essay conclusion D each of which has a consequence of undesirable responses.
As Howe highlights, this attachment experience fosters security, it gives a sense of worth, faith in the helpfulness of others. According to Howethe child builds internal working models of the world and of himself in it, with the aid of which he perceives events, forecasts the future, constructs his plans and works as mitigation in times of trauma by forming resilience mechanisms.
However, insecure attachment is contrary to this. Insecure-avoidant group A develops from a disengaged parenting style. The child who fits into this category shows odd behaviour.
As Howe et al points out, a common characteristic of these children is that they cry a lot, show more distress and are not enthusiastic about physical contact. The children were filled with anxiety before separation from mother, got upset when the mother left and were ambivalent when she returned.
They view a caregiver as unpredictable, rejecting and violent at times. Children who fall in this category are flooded with emotions of fear and anger Main and Solomon Application of attachment theory to social work practice This theory therefore provides social workers with part of the model of analysis in judging the quality of relationships Walker and Crawford Walker and Crawford ; 54 claim this to be essential in knowing when to intervene or even remove a child where there are concerns in relation to risks of insecure attachment.
As Gerhart elucidates, children can recover from abuse or other negative experiences even though it is more difficult for those who have been seriously maltreated.
According to Doherty and Hughes early intervention with children who display discipline problems and problematic behaviours such as noncompliance, temper loss and aggression is very important and must be applied early.
Howe affirms that intervention to dissuade aggressive behaviour at a later time can be less effectual because adolescents become increasingly refractory to behavioural management therapies. Howe asserts that these attachment characteristics portrayed will help practitioners to gather useful information to be analysed and evaluated so as to make neither non-judgemental nor non oppressive decisions.
As Thompson notes, failure to obtain enough information is an example of ineffective practice which can lead to biased decisions being made. The attachment theory highlights the behaviour of parents in both secure and insecure situations. Even the Children Act rests on the belief that children are generally best looked after within the family with both parents playing a full part without resorting to legal proceedings Wilson et al Therefore, it is important that practitioners dismiss preconceived biases and stereotypical judgements but should develop anti oppressive ethos Thompson Thus Neaum makes it clear that, children forming attachments and forming relationships with others is equally important as with the mother.
Feminist movements would argue that the theory is oppressive and gender biased. Taking into consideration that the attachment observation was based on few minutes of behaviour can make it difficult to recognise relevant qualities of attachment.
This same concept may not provide the same anxiety every child. Howe acknowledges that children are distinct and unique individuals with dissimilar feelings and experiences, hence their development should be considered on individual basis.
Difficulties may arise, however, when attempting to implement the procedure to children whose cultural norms, values beliefs and background differ. In some cultures, young children are left for a long time as training for independence while others identify a greater emphasis on maintaining relationships.
The theoretical conceptual model therefore fails to recognise that in certain cultures uncles, brothers and sisters can provide the role of a mother forming several good relations with immediate families which could later help the child.
This theory can misguide practitioners to think that when a child behaves badly it is because of insecure relationships with parents and not putting into considerations other care givers.
Last but not least, the attachment theory assumes that secure attachment always leads to positive future relationships and tend not to pay attention on the predictable variables like the death of the attachment figure, divorce and economic factors. Thus Penn asserts that positive experiences in early life do not always make a child safe from later damage.
There is therefore a danger that attachment theory can lead to a conflicting single-dimensional psychodynamic pathology of family model which puts no consideration of the influence of the wider context of probabilities upon parenting Flynn and Rai The cognitive approach seeks to understand the internal thinking and mental processes that underpin human actions as opposed to behavioural approach which focuses upon learning by experience, response to stimulus in the environment.
Keenanp36 point out that the child is not a passive recipient of information.Oct 25, · Theory: Obviously the main theory I discussed in my essay was the attachment theory.
I too however tried to include as many other relevant theorists and theories involved in the development and maintenance of the attachment theory as I could. Free attachment theory papers, essays, and research papers. My Account. Your search returned over a conclusion that synthesizes the articles will be discussed, which will show how attachment theory impacts child and adolescent development.
This essay will attempt to provide a brief and up to date summary of attachment theory and. Keywords: attachment theory, theory of attachment, Conclusion. John Bowlby is considered the father of attachment theory. If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal: Request the removal of this essay.
Jun 07, · Attachment Theory John Bowlby was a psychoanalyst and has developed his knowledge and understanding into the theory of Attachment. Bowlby believed that children have been born programmed to form attachments which will help them survive; this is known as evolutionary attachments.
Attachment Theory essaysTo begin to understand the attachment theory one must first understand and have a clear definition of what attachment is. From my point of view attachment is a lasting, secure and positive bond between a child and a caregiver, a reciprocal relationship.
"Attachment, a. Attachment theory derives from psychoanalyic psychology, however it is used in social work to attempt to understand behaviour in infancy and.