April 21 Comments Rotten Leg Villages Even today in just one small village of Caojie, near Jinhua in the province of Zhejiang in China, there are hundreds of victims of biological warfare still suffering from painful wounds originated more than 60 years ago when their village was decimated in by Japan with glanders, anthrax, and other biological weapon agents. Unit was a gigantic complex covering six square kilometers and consisted of more than buildings, with living quarters and amenities for up to 3, Japanese staff members, of whom were medical doctors and scientists. The complex contained various factories. It had 4, containers for raising fleas, six giant cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1, containers to produce biological agents.
It is an axiom of human history that whatever technology is available will be applied in warfare as one side or the other seeks to gain an advantage.
Humans are unique among the species in their capacity for fighting prolonged conflicts where the nature of the war reflects the types of technologies available. Stone, metal, leather, wood, domesticated animals, wheels, etc. In late antiquity the adoption of the stirrup in Western Europe transformed warfare by enhancing the fighting capacity of the mounted warrior, which eventually led to the emergence and prominence of the knightly class.
More recently gunpowder, steam engines, aircraft, chemicals, electronics and nuclear physics were employed in warfare.
In each epoch, the technologies available had enormous influence on the strategy and tactics used. Biological warfare is ancient but its applicability to the battlefield has been limited by its unpredictability, blowback possibility and uncertain efficacy. Although biological warfare is currently prohibited by the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention BTWC a review of prior attempts to limit the use of certain weapons such as the medieval crossbow, and more recently gas warfare, provides little encouragement for the notion that a technology that is useful in war can be limited by treaty.
Furthermore, the BTWC restrictions apply only to signatory nation states and are irrelevant to terrorist organizations or lone wolves type of terrorists. Given the human track record for conflict and the potential power of biological warfare we are led to the sad conclusion that biological warfare has a future, and that society must prepare for the eventuality that it will used again by either nations or individuals.
In this essay I will try to peek into the far horizon to identify some general themes that might be helpful in protecting against future horrors fully aware that the nature of technological change is so rapid and profound that any such view must necessarily be myopic.
Existential threats to humanity In considering the importance of biological warfare as a subject for concern it is worthwhile to review the known existential threats.
At this time this writer can identify at three major existential threats to humanity: To this trio might be added climate change making the planet uninhabitable.
Of the three existential threats the first is deduced from the inferred cataclysmic effects of nuclear war. For the second there is geological evidence for the association of asteroid impacts with massive extinction Alvarez, As to an existential threat from microbes recent decades have provided unequivocal evidence for the ability of certain pathogens to cause the extinction of entire species.
Although infectious disease has traditionally not been associated with extinction this view has changed by the finding that a single chytrid fungus was responsible for the extinction of numerous amphibian species Daszak et al.
Previously, the view that infectious diseases were not a cause of extinction was predicated on the notion that many pathogens required their hosts and that some proportion of the host population was naturally resistant.
|Introduction||Due to the complexity of the toxic items, a qualitative comparison of present and future dangers for mankind and environment by taking only the quantitative aspects into consideration can and should not be made since it may lead to wrong conclusions.|
|Table of Contents||Going off of a very rough historical comparison to WW1 and earlier naval organizations try: The logistical support ships, cargo, colliers, oilers, etc.|
However, that calculation does not apply to microbes that are acquired directly from the environment and have no need for a host, such as the majority of fungal pathogens. For those types of host—microbe interactions it is possible for the pathogen to kill off every last member of a species without harm to itself, since it would return to its natural habitat upon killing its last host.
Hence, from the viewpoint of existential threats environmental microbes could potentially pose a much greater threat to humanity than the known pathogenic microbes, which number somewhere near species Cleaveland et al.
The universe of threats The universe of threats can potentially encompass all microbes that inhabit the planet.Both civilian and military researchers have well-studied the psychological effects of natural disasters on civilians and the effects of combat on soldiers.
Yet, little attention has been given to the psychological effects of the deployment of chemical or biological weapons on the general public or.
The possible effects of chemical and biological weapons are subject to a high degree of uncertainty and unpredictability, owing to the involvement of complex and extremely variable meteorological, physiological, epidemiological, ecological and other factors. Satans World-System, Past, Present and Future: Part 4 of the Satanic Rebellion: Background to the Tribulation.
A biblical analysis of the devil's method's and tactics in the administration of his present worldly kingdom, including the status of believers as Strangers in the Devil's Realm and Sojourners in the devil' world, The vanity of life apart from Christ, The hostility of the world to.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other regardbouddhiste.coms can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea..
Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in Oct 20, · The ostensible purpose of chemical and biological weapons is to endanger lives.
Biological agents, however, are particularly ineffective as military weapons, while chemical weapons have only limited uses. This may be why armies have generally acquiesced in international treaties to contain these. 🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.