Although he spent most of his life trying to produce more effective statements of his philosophical views, he did not live to see the firm establishment of his reputation by the criticisms of Kant and much later appreciation of the logical positivists.
Biography[ edit ] Early life and education[ edit ] Hume was the second of two sons born to Joseph Home of Ninewellsan advocate, and his wife The Hon. Throughout his life Hume, who never married, spent time occasionally at his family home at Ninewells in Berwickshirewhich had belonged to his family since the sixteenth century.
His finances as a young man were very "slender". His family was not rich, and, as a younger son, he had little patrimony to live on. He was therefore forced to make a living somehow. At first, because of his family, he considered a career in lawbut came to have, in his words, "an insurmountable aversion to everything but the pursuits of Philosophy and general Learning; and while [my family] fanceyed I was poring over Voet and VinniusCicero and Virgil were the Authors which I was secretly devouring".
Due to this inspiration, Hume set out to spend a minimum of 10 years reading and writing. He soon came to the verge of a mental breakdownsuffering from what a doctor diagnosed as the "Disease of the Learned". Hume wrote that it started with a coldness, which he attributed to a "Laziness of Temper", that lasted about nine months.
Later, some scurvy spots broke out on his fingers. Hume wrote that he "went under a Course of Bitters and Anti-Hysteric Pills", taken along with a pint of claret every day. Hume also decided to have a more active life to better continue his learning.
Career[ edit ] At 25 years of age, Hume, although of noble ancestry, had no source of income and no learned profession.
Hume described his "love for literary fame" as his "ruling passion"  and judged his two late works, the so-called "first" and "second" enquiries, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Moralsrespectively, as his greatest literary and philosophical achievements,  asking his contemporaries to judge him on the merits of the later texts alone, rather than the more radical formulations of his early, youthful work, dismissing his philosophical debut as juvenilia: Hume was just 23 years old when he started this work and it is now regarded as one of the most important in the history of Western philosophy.
However, the position was given to William Cleghorn  after Edinburgh ministers petitioned the town council not to appoint Hume because he was seen as an atheist. However, it was then that Hume started his great historical work The History of England. This took him fifteen years and ran to over a million words.
During this time he was also involved with the Canongate Theatre through his friend John Homea preacher.
Often called the First Enquiry, it proved little more successful than the Treatise, perhaps because of the publishing of his short autobiography, My Own Life, which "made friends difficult for the first Enquiry". It was necessary in the s for his friends to avert a trial against him on the charge of heresy.
However, he "would not have come and could not be forced to attend if he said he was not a member of the Established Church". He had published the Philosophical Essays by this time which were decidedly anti-religious. Even Adam Smithhis personal friend who had vacated the Glasgow philosophy chair, was against his appointment out of concern public opinion would be against it.
In the following year "the Faculty of Advocates chose me their Librarian, an office from which I received little or no emolument, but which gave me the command of a large library". Once in England, Hume and Rousseau fell out. Here he wrote that he was given "all the secrets of the Kingdom".
Anyone hankering for startling revelations or amusing anecdotes had better look elsewhere. Hume told him he sincerely believed it a "most unreasonable fancy" that there might be life after death.
In his will he requests that it be inscribed only with his name and the year of his birth and death, "leaving it to Posterity to add the Rest". Get into the boat this instant". According to the logical positivists, unless a statement could be verified by experience, or else was true or false by definition i.
Hume thought that we can form beliefs about that which extends beyond any possible experience, through the operation of faculties such as custom and the imagination, but he was sceptical about claims to knowledge on this basis. For example, experiencing the painful sensation of touching the handle of a hot pan is more forceful than simply thinking about touching a hot pan.
Similarly, a person experiences a variety of taste-sensations, tactile-sensations, and smell-sensations when biting into an apple, with the overall sensation again being a complex impression.
Thinking about an apple allows a person to form complex ideas, which are made of similar parts as the complex impressions they were developed from, but which are also less forceful.+ free ebooks online.
Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Thomas Kuhn Philosophy: Discussion of Metaphysics / Philosophy of Thomas Kuhn's Paradigm Shift (from Space Time to Space Motion) - Structure of Scientific Revolutions Quotes Quotations by Thomas Kuhn.
Morality and Cognitive Science. What do we know about how people make moral judgments? And what should moral philosophers do with this knowledge?
A review of Greg Boyd's "Crucifixion of the Warrior God" Link "The Rest of Genesis" This is from the Appendix of Origins: The Ancient Impact & Modern Implications of Genesis 1–11, c m coauthored by me and Douglas Jacoby (Morgan James, ). Link "Learn How (Not) To Doubt," The Gospel Coalition (April 17, ) Link Quoted in the Daily .
This book is a philosophical introduction to ethics. It differs from existing texts by focusing on a basic philosophical problem about morality, its apparent immunity from observational testing. Hume devoted the second book of the Treatise to an account of the human passions and a discussion of their role in the operation of the human will.
It is our feelings or sentiments, Hume claimed, that exert practical influence over human volition and action.